The fact is that the sun is lower in the sky in winter than in summer allows us to plan and construct buildings that capture that free heat in winter and reject the heat in summer. The orientation of the whole building plays an important part in designing a good house.
South orientation receives maximum solar radiation during winters, which is preferable. As South façade has the advantage of receiving more solar radiation during winter than that of receiving during summer. For openings on the south facade, small overhang or curtains can cut off direct solar penetration during summer and allows it during winter. This is a most beneficial aspect, not available on any other facade.
East and west receive maximum solar radiation during summer. West is a crucial orientation, because high intensity of solar radiation is received during evening hours, when the internal gains are also at its peak.
Therefore, Deep verandahs or sunshades in the south and west facades would effectively exclude these strong evening rays.
Aim of Building Orientation:
The most frequently used rooms during the day are oriented in the East and the North whereas the rooms that are used mostly at night are restricted to the South and the West, which are hotter directions.
More doors and windows are placed in the East to allow the Sun’s UV rays to penetrate into the house in the mornings.
The orientation of kitchen should be towards the east to allow the UV rays to destroy the germs that tend to multiply in the presence of moisture & food.
The design of houses should be in such a way that all rooms get the maximum benefit of the sunlight whether the occupants desire it or not.
While deciding the building orientation, one must also take into consideration the location of landscape feature in a plot, i.e. trees, planters, etc which will affect the building depending on sun direction and sun path.
Trees and tall shrubs should be planted towards south and west of the site to protect the inmates from the afternoon heat and to provide them with oxygen.The open water bodies in gardens should be kept in the north-east to enable the morning UV rays of the sunlight to destroy germs & bacteria before using it.
The chief aim of the orientation of buildings is to provide physically and psychologically comfortable living inside the building to give good health & happiness to the user in a secure way.